Geospatial AI, #Natureinfomatics

What is Geospatial Data 

Geospatial data is information on or near the surface of the earth that includes a description of objects, events and other features with a location tag.

Data that typically combines geolocation coordinates and attributes, features or characteristics of objects with temporal information on events i.e. the time span is called geospatial data. 

Geospatial data is generated from diverse sources in multiple formats. For our purpose, it includes satellite imagery, weather data, forestry – types and ages of trees, hydrological, soil and ecological data including flora & fauna and animal life. 

Geospatial information systems (GIS) relate to the physical mapping of data within a visual representation. For example, when a forest map is shown with multiple layers of land area burned, vegetation destroyed, temperature, animals affected, smoke emission etc. it is GIS in action.


Types of geospatial data

There are two primary forms of geospatial data: vector data and raster data.

Vector data is data in which points, lines and polygons represent features such as forest lands, power lines, railroads, rivers etc. For example, a visual representation using vector data might include forests, elevations, slopes, paths, and lakes, where paths, rods and power grids are represented by lines and villages and croplands, and forested areas are represented by polygons. Descriptive information, annotations on locations 

Raster data is pixelated satellite imagery or photographs in rows and columns matrix. When high-resolution satellite imagery is placed in a precise cell with geolocation, and thematic information such as tree types, soil, and temperature in that location is combined, the matrix becomes a raster.  

What is #naturetech and #natureinfomatics

There are several terms used to describe data about nature, forests, flora and fauna, soil and hydrology. We often use the  #natureinfomatics which includes data on various elements of nature and the whole ecological system which is essentially a type of GIS data but more specific to our purposes of nature conservation.

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